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Thyroid malignancy, Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone, Elevated thyroid antibodies
Background: Previous studies have found a correlation between high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin antibodies, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies and the presence of a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The authors aimed to examine the presence of a correlation between high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid antibodies, and malignant thyroid nodule. As well as determining if the high levels of thyroid antibodies reflect the presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis rather than an underlying thyroid malignancy.
Methods: The authors performed a case control study at King Abdulaziz University Hospital reviewing the records of 982 patients who had undergone thyroid surgery from 2007 until 2019. The authors collected descriptive data, histopathology results, and preoperative measurements for thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin antibodies, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies.
Results: The mean serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was higher in the benign thyroid nodule group compared to the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma group, but there was no statistical significance detected (p-value = 0.027). Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference detected in the mean serum thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels between the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma group and benign nodule patients, with p-values of 0.208 and 0.392, respectively. The number of patients who had concurrent lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher in the malignant group compared to the benign thyroid nodule group, independent from their thyroid antibody status; however, it did not reach statistical significance (p-value = 0.057).
Conclusion: There was no correlation identified between the elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid antibodies, and thyroid malignancy in our population.